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Making Ruby's Array.include? faster for symbols

It's all started doing some refactoring - I was playing with Array and Set and something tempted me do to a simple benchmark that revealed strange results. That's a second part in which I describe how I fixed it. It's about building Ruby's code, debugging it with lldb and making it faster!

This article is Part 2 in a 2-Part Series.

It all started with benchmarking Array.include?()

               array:  1332567.6 i/s
       array symbols:  1154135.9 i/s - 1.15x  slower

Isn't that strange that array of symbols is slower than one with strings? Symbols are supposed to be fast!

I downloaded Ruby's source code and started looking at it.

I initially though the problem was with Symbol's == so I went looking for it. I found one for String easily in string.c

rb_define_method(rb_cString, "==", rb_str_equal, 1);

But symbol.c didn't follow the pattern, because it's also in string.c :-)

rb_define_method(rb_cSymbol, "==", sym_equal, 1);

It was also simple to figure out where array is, that's a no brainer:

rb_define_method(rb_cArray, "include?", rb_ary_includes, 1);
rb_ary_includes(VALUE ary, VALUE item)
    long i;
    VALUE e;

    for (i=0; i<RARRAY_LEN(ary); i++) {
    e = RARRAY_AREF(ary, i);
    switch (rb_equal_opt(e, item)) {
      case Qundef:
        if (rb_equal(e, item)) return Qtrue;
      case Qtrue:
        return Qtrue;
    return Qfalse;

That lead me to vm_insnhelper.c rb_equal_opt then to opt_eq_func and something didn't feel right:

opt_eq_func(VALUE recv, VALUE obj, CALL_INFO ci, CALL_CACHE cc)
#define BUILTIN_CLASS_P(x, k) (!SPECIAL_CONST_P(x) && RBASIC_CLASS(x) == k)
    if (FIXNUM_2_P(recv, obj)) {
        return (recv == obj) ? Qtrue : Qfalse;
    else if (FLONUM_2_P(recv, obj)) {
        return (recv == obj) ? Qtrue : Qfalse;
    else if (BUILTIN_CLASS_P(recv, rb_cFloat)) {
        return rb_float_equal(recv, obj);
    else if (BUILTIN_CLASS_P(recv, rb_cString)) {
        return rb_str_equal(recv, obj);

    vm_search_method(ci, cc, recv);

    if (check_cfunc(cc->me, rb_obj_equal)) {
        return recv == obj ? Qtrue : Qfalse;

    return Qundef;

I was going to say I hate formatting like that but turned out it's because they mix spaces and tabs in the file. Duh!

Looking at the code it's pretty obvious - there's no special case for symbols. I guess I kinda expected that Ruby has optimized methods written in C. Now it was time to figure out how to write the missing one.

First, some set up. Run once to prepare make files (Mac OS X):

CFLAGS="-O0 -ggdb" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/opt/rbenv/versions/2.5.0 --with-openssl-dir="$(brew --prefix openssl)"  --disable-install-doc

Then to compile:

make && make check && make install

The Ruby C API guide is a good starting point to understand what's going on in the code. The most important lesson - you cannot printf a VALUE, there's rb_p for that.

Also you can debug stuff with lldb and it's pretty simple (it's not gdb though so commands are different):

lldb /usr/local/opt/rbenv/versions/2.5.0/bin/ruby -- -e "if [:test, :another].include?(:test); puts 'A'; end"

breakpoint set --file vm_insnhelper.c --line 1279
process launch
process continue

Of course I was so eager that I tried many things before I finally searched for The Ruby C API guide :-D I thought it's easy to understand and I could deal with C code as it was back in the days.

When I read the guide it was obvious that I had to use SYMBOL_P:

diff --git a/vm_insnhelper.c b/vm_insnhelper.c
index a991e59..476b5e2 100644
--- a/vm_insnhelper.c
+++ b/vm_insnhelper.c
@@ -1296,6 +1296,11 @@ opt_eq_func(VALUE recv, VALUE obj, CALL_INFO ci, CALL_CACHE cc)
        return rb_str_equal(recv, obj);
+    else if (SYMBOL_P(recv) && SYMBOL_P(obj)) {
+        if (EQ_UNREDEFINED_P(SYMBOL)) {
+       return rb_obj_equal(recv, obj);
+   }
+    }

Now running the benchmark again:

       array symbols:  1630417.3 i/s
               array:  1372269.7 i/s - 1.19x  slower

Symbols are now faster! That's how it should work from the beginning.

As you can see it's easy to browse C code. Also if you see something sticking out in your benchmarks it could be just a simple bug in the code. You need to remember there are two layers in Ruby - Ruby code and C code. If your Ruby code looks good could be C code that's faulty.

Created PR with a fix.

If you have any comments share them with me.

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